5 Most Common Causes of Infertility in Females

5 Most Common Causes of Infertility in Females

Sub-fertility, also known as infertility, is the inability to conceive and bear a child even after one year of unprotected sexual activity. About 10-15% of couples have difficulty conceiving and need medical help. One-third of these are male couples, one-third of the female couples, and one-third have both male and female causes of infertility.

To comprehend the issues that cause infertility, it is essential to comprehend the primary mechanism of fertility in women.

Human reproduction is the synchronization of numerous intricate endocrine processes that are necessary for pregnancy.


These are the steps in this process:

1.   Each month, one of the two ovaries releases a mature egg that is picked up by the fallopian tube.


2.   Sperm swim up the vagina, through the uterus, into the fallopian tube to reach the egg inside the tube.


3.  The egg is then fertilized inside the fallopian tube to form an embryo, which travels down the fallopian tube into the uterus.

4.   The embryo attaches inside the uterus to grow into a pregnancy.


Therefore, any issues within the uterus region, fallopian tubes, ovaries, sperm, or hormones can end in infertility.

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5 Most Common Causes of Infertility in Females are as below.


1.   Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, or PCOS, is a condition that affects about 6% of women. When the ovaries produce too much of the male hormone testosterone, which lowers levels of the female follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), this condition occurs. Your ovarian follicles are prevented from releasing a mature egg in PCOS, which results in the follicles becoming cysts and filled with fluid. Progesterone production ceases without ovulation, but estrogenic production continues. Acne, excessive weight gain, and irregular menstrual periods are all possible signs of PCOS.


Treatment: Despite the fact that PCOS cannot be cured, clinical-grade supplements designed to improve egg quality and ovarian function have been shown to be especially helpful for PCOS sufferers. Additionally, Clomid, which acts on the pituitary gland, is sometimes utilized. Some PCOS women may be prescribed metformin (Glucophage) to reduce male hormone production.



2.   Endometriosis, a noncancerous condition in which cells of the uterine lining (endometrium) are also growing on the  Ovaries or other areas, accounts for about 30% of all cases of infertility among women.

These endometrial cysts when in any of the areas around ovaries, fallopian tubes prevent the transfer of eggs. Often than infertility, endometriosis may not show any other symptoms. However, signs of severe pain and erratic periods, chronic pelvic pain, severe pain during sexual activity, bowel pain, and painful menstrual urination should be reported to your doctor at the earliest.


Treatment: It is possible to remove abnormal tissue that is obstructing egg passages through laparoscopic surgery. Patients have shown positive chances of attaining motherhood in cases of endometriosis surgery. Uterine polyps, uterine fibroids, and scarring can all be removed surgically, which can improve fertility.



3. Tubal Blockages: Damaged fallopian tubes can prevent sperm from reaching the egg and eggs from entering the uterus. This condition stereotypically presents no symptoms other than the problem of infertility itself. One of the most common causes of tubal blockages that lead to infertility among women is persistent or severe Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID). Infertility or ectopic pregnancy (embryo development in a fallopian tube instead of the uterus) may result from PID's scarring, abscess formation, or tubal damage. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) account for the majority of cases of PID.


Treatment: Any obstruction in the fallopian tube needs removal from the tube passage. Usually, conception after these kinds of surgeries is low. And certain times, chances of tubal pregnancy increase with fallopian tube surgery. However, this surgery is recommended, if polyps, scarring, or uterine fibroids appear to be affecting fertility.



4.    Poor Egg Condition: Damaged eggs or the ones with chromosomal abnormalities usually do not sustain a pregnancy. This is an age-related issue, where the egg quality deteriorates significantly post-late 30s and early 40s. Women show signs of low fertility in their mid-30s, which sharply declines in the later years. This leads to fewer healthy eggs, and the ovaries’ ability to release fit eggs reduces. The formation of abnormal chromosomes increases, leading to higher chances of miscarriage or birth defects.


Treatment: Donor egg or embryo, or surrogacy are the most common solutions here. Approximately 33% of women who undergo IVF treatment use donor eggs or embryos. Usually, prescription drugs or medical care are recommended. Also, a diet inclusive of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, as well as other nutritional supplements, is suggested to maintain a healthy hormonal balance, which in turn can make the menstrual cycle more predictable.


5.   Problems with Ovulation: Hyperprolactinemia, is a hormonal issue that can prevent an ovary from releasing a mature egg. This happens with excess production of the hormone prolactin by the pituitary gland. Prolactin’s overproduction prevents ovulation by lowering gonadotropin hormone levels. You may have no or sporadic periods with light or very heavy bleeding as symptoms.


Treatment: Hormonal medication like Medications like Clomiphene Citrate, Gonadotropins, and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) are injected into the ovaries. This stimulates the growth and ovulation of eggs. A few key points to note are that women who conceive with hCG hormones have a 30% chance of having multiple births while women who conceive with clomiphene have a 10% chance of having twins. One-third or more are triplets, and approximately two-thirds are twins.   


Conclusion :

The pursuit of the highest possible level of physical and mental health is a fundamental human right. The number, timing, and spacing of children are up to the individual and the couple. These fundamental human rights may be obstructed by infertility. Therefore, addressing infertility is an essential component of realizing individuals' and couples' rights to start families. A better understanding of the causes of female infertility is the first step towards adapting to the early stages of fertility. This can serve as the beginning of a fertility cure and result in the real probability of overcoming infertility.

Continue reading our blogs to know more about issues related to infertility, its cure, and post-delivery care. For more details related to female health, you may visit:


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