The Basics of Colorectal Surgery: Definition, Types, Conditions, and Procedures

The Basics of Colorectal Surgery: Definition, Types, Conditions, and Procedures


Colorectal surgery (CRC) is one of the popular medical fields that deal with disorders and issues of the lower digestive tract. The term “colorectal” is coined of two different body parts i.e. colon and rectum. It includes all the organs of the lower digestive tract, rectum, anus, colon, pelvic floor, and small intestine.

Colorectal surgery comes as an effective way to treat the affected areas and helps in recovering back to the normal state of your colorectal. Different procedures are performed using minimally invasive, robotic, or laparoscopic techniques to treat colorectal disease.

There are primarily two types of colorectal surgeries. They are abdominal surgery and anorectal surgery. Abdominal surgeries are performed when the affected areas are colon, or rectal, or if the patient is suffering from diverticulitis. While anorectal surgeries help in dealing with hemorrhoids, anal fissures, anal fistulas, and prolapse. Depending on their severity, these conditions are treated in the office or the operating room.


Colorectal Surgery

Colorectal surgery helps in dealing with disorders of the rectum, anus, and colon. Colectomy, polypectomy, ileo/colostomy, strictureplasty, anoplasty, and haemorrhoidectomy are some of the commonly practiced surgical treatments. Besides them, a new surgical method called Compression Anastomotic Ring-locking Procedure (CARP) is also being used to provide treatment and relief from it.


Surgery for Familial polyposis coli

Familial polyposis coli or familial adenomatous polyposis is an unprecedented genetic infection of the colon giving various polyps all around the colon. This condition has a highly dangerous potential and may require the total removal of the colon and rectum, depending on the extremity. Inside progression is re-established by playing out an ileo-anal- pouch.

This medical surgery is prophylactic and is performed when the polyps are diagnosed in teens. We get four surgical options in this condition. This includes total abdominal colectomy with ileo-rectal anastomosis, total proctocolectomy with end ileostomy, total proctocolectomy with landmass ileostomy, and total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch ileo-rectal anastomosis.


Surgery for ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease associated with the large bowel. It can vary in seriousness. Ulcerative colitis begins from the rectum area and reaches toward the caecum. Patients in India usually have a milder type of ulcerative colitis limited to their left colons and dying down with oral prescription. Some patients may get to the emergency with serious side effects and may require hospitalization.

In some cases, however, a medical procedure for conditions like toxic megacolon, monstrous lower GI draining, etc. The medical procedure asks for a complete colectomy with ileostomy. Surgery for extensive ulcerative colitis or pancolitis or malignant growth in a setting of ulcerative colitis will be through evacuating the whole colon and rectum called "total procto-colectomy" and the typical congruity is re-established by making an 'ileo-anal- pouch.' This method, for the most part, requires the making of continent ileostomy or Brooke ileostomy.


Surgery for diverticulitis

Diverticulitis is a condition that is generally diagnosed in old age people where weak spots foster in the sigmoid and rising colon bringing about the limited expansion of colonic mucosa called diverticulosis. Contamination and inflammation of these diverticulitis bring about diverticulitis. This condition could require medical surgery if it has colonic block, colo-vesical fistula, or wild dying. Colectomy and anastomosis are the two major helpful medical surgeries.

If the patient suffers repeated attacks of diverticulitis, they might get asked for diverticulitis surgery. Patients with an impaired immune system may suffer from continuous attacks of diverticulitis due to an unusual fistula that forms between the colon and the adjacent organ.


Surgery for Cancer of Colon and rectum:

Colon and rectum are one of the commonest illnesses that influences large bowels. Careful evacuation of the disease is the essential treatment that is followed under such conditions. Rectal cancers will require the complete removal of the rectal apparatus with a durable end colostomy.

In some cases of rectal cancers, the anal sphincter system can be saved by taking surgical staplers in use. Colon cancers will require the expulsion of the pieces of the colon known as right or left hemi-colectomy.

However, in the initial phase, rectal cancer diseases get promoted by transanal resection or an adjacent resection. Rectal cancers can likewise be resected following the APPEAR method - Anterior Perineal PlanE for Ultra-low Foremost Resection. Total mesorectal excision and trans-anal endoscopic microsurgery are some other medical procedures for rectal cancer diseases.



Colorectal surgery involves colonic resection and anastomosis. It is performed for the treatment of multiple pathologies such as colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diverticulitis, and other colon rectum diseases. Surgeons, specializing in the surgical care of conditions affecting small bowel, rectum, colon, and anus deal with these issues. Out of two colorectal surgeries, abdominal surgeries usually require a hospital stay and take a longer recovery time than anal and rectal surgeries. Improvements in their symptoms can be observed by the patients within a few days to a week. The colorectal disease also requires pain management techniques where the use of narcotics helps deal with surgical pain.


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